EU, EEA, EFTA and Schengen countries

The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union formed by its member countries, and, within its territory, products, services, people and money can move freely without customs duties or other obstacles. The EU was established with the Maastricht Treaty in 1993. Finland joined the EU in 1995.

The EEA, or European Economic Area, consists of the member countries of the European Union and EFTA countries except Switzerland. The EEA agreement was established in 1994.

The EFTA, or European Free Trade Association, was founded in 1960 to promote free trade between its member countries. Finland left EFTA in 1995.

The Schengen countries form a territory where there are no travel restrictions or border controls between member states. The Schengen cooperation was initiated in 1985 by Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg and France and it now encompasses almost all EU countries. Finland has applied the Schengen agreement since 2001.

EU countries

EEA countries

EFTA countries Schengen countries
Austria Austria   Austria
Belgium Belgium   Belgium
Bulgaria Bulgaria    
Croatia Croatia    
Cyprus Cyprus    
Czech Republic Czech Republic   Czech Republic
Denmark Denmark   Denmark
Estonia Estonia   Estonia
Finland Finland   Finland
France France   France
       
Greece Greece   Greece
Germany Germany   Germany
Hungary Hungary   Hungary
 

Iceland

Iceland

Iceland

Ireland Ireland    
Italy Italy   Italy
Latvia Latvia   Latvia
 

Liechtenstein

Liechtenstein

Liechtenstein

Lithuania Lithuania   Lithuania
Luxembourg Luxembourg   Luxembourg
Malta Malta   Malta
The Netherlands The Netherlands   The Netherlands
  Norway Norway Norway
Poland Poland   Poland
Portugal Portugal   Portugal
Romania Romania    
Slovakia Slovakia   Slovakia
Slovenia Slovenia   Slovenia
Spain Spain   Spain
Sweden Sweden   Sweden
    Switzerland Switzerland
United Kingdom United Kingdom    

 

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